Is boron amorphous or crystalline?
Boron can be prepared in several crystalline and amorphous forms. The well-known forms of crystallization are α-rhombohedral (α-R), β-rhombohedral (β-R) and β-tetragonal (β-T). In special cases, boron can also be synthesized in the form of α-tetragonal (α-T) and γ-orthotropic (γ) allotropes. Two amorphous forms, one is fine powder, the other is glassy solid, is also known.
What is amorphous boron?
Amorphous boron is a kind of odorless dark brown powder, which is stable in air at room temperature. it can be oxidized when heated to 300℃ and ignited when it reaches 700 ℃. As a boron fine chemical product, it is widely used in metallurgy, synthesis, aerospace and other fields. It is often used as deoxidizer, initiator of automobile airbag, ignition agent of rocket launch fuel, etc.
Amorphous boron powder is an important energy material. As a solid fuel in composite solid propellant, the calorific value of boron is more than twice that of carbon, about twice that of aluminum and more than twice that of magnesium, and its volumetric calorific value is almost three times that of hydrocarbon fuel. The density is only slightly lower than that of aluminum and has the highest volume calorific value. In terms of energy, boron should be the best non-metallic fuel. And the ignition temperature of amorphous boron is greatly reduced because of its irregular shape and large specific surface area.
Amorphous boron Uses
Automobile (igniter and seat belt tensioner in airbag).
Additives in pyrotechnic mixtures (torches, igniters and retarders).
Additives in solid rocket propellants, fuels and explosives.
Preparation of Refractory Metal boride.
Sintering Additives for SiC Advanced Ceramics.
Reductive Additives in Flux for Welding stainless Steel.
Neutron Absorber in Nuclear Technology.
Amorphous boron reacts with magnesium to form crystalline magnesium boride (MgB2), which is a high temperature superconductor.
What is the difference between amorphous boron and crystalline boron?
Amorphous boron is brown powder, while crystalline boron is black, very hard (Morse hardness is about 9.5) and is a poor conductor at room temperature.
The chemical properties of amorphous boron are more active than that of crystalline boron. Because of its hardness, crystalline boron is often used instead of diamond to make cutting tools or drills.
What happens when amorphous boron is heated in air?
Amorphous boron produces a mixture of boron trioxide and boron nitride when it is burned in air. Boron gives off a bright flame when it burns in oxygen.
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